The Kilwa Sultanate (10th-15th centuries)

A 14th-century Description

The following excerpt is from the work of 14th-century explorer and scholar Ibn Battuta.

Source: Ibn Battuta, “A Visit to Zeila, Mogadishu, Mombasa, and Kilwa Kisiwani,” in The East African Coast: Select Documents from the First to the Earlier Nineteenth Century, edited by G. S. P. Freeman-Grenville, 31-32.

The Ruins of Kilwa

An Anonymous 15th-century Account

Anonymous Arabic Account of the Foundation of the Kilwa Sultanate (c. 1520).