A 10th-century Description

These passages are from Kindi, an Arab historian who wrote a famous book about caliphal governors of Egypt in the 10th century. In it, we hear his account of Ahmad b. Tulun’s decision to declare jihad on Muwaffaq, the brother of the Abbasid caliph Mu’tamid, ostensibly to defend the caliph himself in 883.

This poem celebrates Ahmad b. Tulun:

Here’s another poem in celebration of Ibn Tulun, from the same source: