Umayyad Caliphate 2.0

Useful vocab: banu Hafsun, muwallad, ‘Abd al-Rahman III, Madinat al-Zahra’

This map shows the three competing Caliphates: Umayyad, Fatimid, and ‘Abbasid, before the Fatimids took over Egypt and created Cairo in 969. The date is incorrect, though, since the Umayyads did not claim the Caliphate until 929 (the map is labelled 923).

Sources for the Umayyad Caliphate of Andalus

Banu Hafsun

‘Abd al-Rahman III

Madinat al-Zahra’