An 8th-century Description

This passage is from the Chronicle to 754, an anonymous history written by a Christian in Latin in the 8th century.

Source, pp. 29-32.

An 8th-century Coin

Left: star; Margin: a blundered Latin legend: SLDFRTINIPAINXIIIINI (?) (which means SoLiDus FeRiTus IN SPaNia ANNus …. i.e. Solidus Feritus in Spania Ann …..) “solidus struck in Spain year (?)”

Right: “Muhammad is the messenger of God”; Margin: “this dinar was struck in al-Andalus the year eight and ninety”

A 9th-century Description

This snippet was written by Ibn ‘Abd al-Hakam, an Egyptian historian who wrote a book in Arabic in the 9th century about the conquest of Spain.

Source, pp. 32-36.