Maps of the Ottoman Empire

A 15th-century Ottoman Chronicle

A 16th-century Coin

Left: “Sultan of the two lands (Europe and Asia) and Lord of the two seas (Black and Mediterranean) the Sultan son of the Sultan”.

Right: “Sultan Murad ibn Selim Khan, may his victory be glorious, struck in Misr the year 982.”

Ghazi Theory

Orhan’s Inscription (1337):
The foremost great emir, the mujahid. Sultan of the ghazis. Ghazi son of ghazi. Champion of the State and Religion and the Horizons. Hero of the age [pahlavan al-zaman], Orhan son of Osman.

Epic description of Orhon’s general:

Edict of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezit II (1484):

Edict of Ottoman Sultan Mehmet (1472):

A Byzantine Chronicle


Blue Mosque (17th cent.)

Aga Sofia = Hagia Sophia (6th cent.)