A 10th-century Coin

Obverse, in field: “for God, al-Radi billah”; in margin: “no god but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God.” Reverse, in field: the Ikhshidid tamgha (seal), “Muhammad”; in margin: “In the name of God this dirham was struck in Egypt.” On the pre-Islamic, Central Asian connections of this coin, see this article.

A 12th- or 13th-century Description

This snippet is from Ibn Said’s extensive history of the Islamic West, written in Arabic in the 12th or 13th century. In it, he describes the troop’s response to the ikhshid’s agreement with the Hamdanids.

Source, p. 611.