Eastern Anatolian Beyliks

Anatolian Cities



Medieval Astrology

…compare to the dragon gate in Baghdad:


Sitte Melik Tombs:
“…and of the Muslims, crown of the people, helper of the imam, supporter of the reign, greatness of the state, start of the religion, brilliance of the community, sun of virtues, cave of monotheist ghazis, protector of the border regions of the faithful, slayer of infidels and polytheists, suppressor of heresy and rebels, vanquisher of heretics and innovators, supporter of the Caliphate, the glory of kings and sultans, refute for the weak and the indigent, father of orphans and the oppressed, enforcer of justice against the oppressors, the hero of Rome, Syria, and the Armenians, the brave and blessed exalted sovereign, the lord falcon-prince, the price of the family of Mangujak, Abu I-Muzaffar Shahanshah b. Sulayman b. Ishaq, son of the late fortunate martyr warrior amir Mengujek, the supporter of the COmmander of the Faithful [may God perpetuate] his fortune, strength [and power].”

Divriği mosque and hospital complex

…compare to the Armenian church at Aght’amar:

Two 12th-century Coins

Copper dirham, minted under Husam al-Din Yuluq Arslan ibn Il-Ghazi (1184-1201 CE)

Left: Originally it was assumed that the dejected figure crouching in the center of the obverse, surrounded by three other upright figures, depicted the general mourning following the death of Saladin, because it dates from the year in which he died, 589 H (1193 CE). While this theory has since been dismissed, it did, indirectly, relate to Saladin’s death. It is considered likely that the design refers to the “Great Conjugation”, when the sun, moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn all appeared in the sign of Virgo – a spectacular event that took place in the early autumn of 582 (1186). It is said that this predicted a calamity of the worst kind, which the whole of the Islamic world at that time considered Saladin’s death would be.

Right: Field: The Imam al-Nasir li’l-Din, Commander of the Faithful; Margin: Sword of the Faith, Ruler of Diyarbakir, Yuluq Arslan ibn Il-Ghazi ibn Artuq year nine and eighty and five hundred.

Copper dirham, minted under Husam al-Din Yuluq Arslan ibn Il-Ghazi (1184-1201 CE)

Left: Margin, down the left side: Nur al-Din Atabeg.

Right: Middle: al-Nasir li-Din allah, Commander of the Faithful; Inner margin: the King al-Afdal ‘Ali and the King, al-Zahir Ghazi son of the King al-Nasir Yusuf; Outer margin: Sword of the faith Yuluq Arslan, King of Diyarbakir, ibn Il-Ghazi ibn Artuq struck the year six and ninety and five hundred.

Two 13th-century Coins

Copper dirham, minted under Nasir al-Din Artuq Arslan ibn Il-Ghazi (1201-1239 CE)

Right: Margin: in Mardin year nine and ninety and five hundred; Field: al-Nasir li-Din Allah, Commander of the Faithful, the Just King, Abu Bakr ibn Ayyub, King of Diyar Bakir, Defender of the Faith Artuq Arslan.

Copper dirham, minted under Nasir al-Din Artuq Arslan ibn Il-Ghazi (1201-1239 CE)

Left: Margin: the Enlightened, the Just King, Defender of the Faith, Artuq Lion, Ruler of Diyarbakir.

Right: Center: the Imam al-Nasir li-Din Allah, Commander of the Faithful six and six hundred; Margin: the Just King, Sword of the Faith, Abu Bakr ibn Ayyub struck in Mardin the year

Another 12th-century Coin

Copper dirham, minted under Qutb al-Din Il-Ghazi II ibn Alpi (1176-1184 CE)

Left: seven and seventy and five hundred

Right: al-Nasir li’l-Din, COmmander of the Faithful, this dirham (tamgha) cursed be he who defaces (or changes) it, Qutb al-Din son of Najm al-Din, son of Husam al-Din.

…compare to Byzantine prototype:

Gold solidus, minted under Heraclius, 7th century.