Ahmad b. Tulun

A 9th-century Coin

Left: center: “no god but God, unique, He has no associate, al-Mufawwid ‘ila Allah”; inner margin: “in the name of God this dinar was struck in Misr the year six and sixty and two hundred”; outer margin: “the command is God’s, past and future, and on that day the faithful will rejoice in the victory granted by God” (Q30:4)

Right: center: “for God, Muhammad is the messenger of God, al-Mu‘tamid ‘ala-Allah, Ahmad bin Tulun”; margin: “Muhammad is the messenger of God who sent him with guidance and the religion of truth that he might make it supreme over all other religions, even though the polytheists may detest it.” (Q9:33)

A 10th-century Description

This passage comes from Balawi, an Arab historian from Egypt who wrote the biography of Ahmad b. Tulun in the 10th century.

Source, pp. 149-50.