Map of the Mamluk Sultanate
A 14th-century Description
The following excerpt is from the work of Arab philosopher and historian Ibn Khaldun.
Mihrab of the tomb
A 13th-century Coin
Left: Center: al-Musta’simiyya al-Salihiyya, queen of the Muslims, mother of the triumphant king [al-malik al-mansur], the friend [Khalil] of the Commander of the Faithful”; Margin: “there is no god but God, Muhammad is the Messenger of God, He sent him with guidance and the religion of the truth to make it apparent above all religion.”
Right: Center: the Imam al-Must’asim bi-llah Abu Ahmad ‘Abd Allah, Commander of the Faithful; Margin: In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful, this dinar was struck in Cairo in the year six hundred forty-eight.
Inscription at Safad
Complex of Qalawun (1284-1285)
…compare to the windows of Crac des Chevaliers, Syria, mid-13th century:
The Madrasa of Nasir Muhammad (1304)
Nasir Muhammad and the Franks