Map of the Ghurid Empire
A 13th-century Coin
Left: Center: no god but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God, al-Nasir li-din Allah, Commander of the Faithful; Margin: it is He who was sent the messenger of God with guidance and the religion of truth that he might make it supreme over all other religions [Q 9:33].
Right: Center: the Supreme Sultan [=al-sultān al-mu’azzam], Invigorator of the World and the Faith, Father of Victory, Muhammad ibn Sam; Margin: this dinar was struck in the months of the year six hundred [=1203-1204 CE].
A 12th-century Coin
Gold dinar, minted under Muʿizz al-Din Muhammad b. Baha al-Din Sam (1171-1206) as vassal of his brother Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad b. Sam (1163-1203).
Left: Center: Muhammad b. Sam; Inner circle: Helper of the World and the Faith, Father of Victory; Middle circle: no god but God, al-Nasir li-din Allah, the Supreme Sultan [al-sultan al-aʿzam]; Outer circle: it is He who was sent the messenger of God with guidance and the religion of truth that he might make it supreme over all other religions [Q 9:33]
Right: Center: Muhammad b. Sam; Inner circle: of the World and the Faith, Father of Victory; Middle circle: Muhammad is the messenger of God the Mighty Sultan, Muʿizz; Outer circle: (this coin was) struck (in the town of Ghaz)na rabiʿ al-awwal year seven and ninety and five hundred
Compare these first two coins to those minted elsewhere:
The Almohads (North Africa)
The Fatimids (Spain)
The Ayyubids (Egypt, Syria)
A 12th-Century Coin
This coin was minted by the Ghurid ruler Muhammad b. Sam in Delhi. The image on the left is the Hindu goddess Lakshmi. On the right is a Devangari inscription with his name: Sri Mahamada Vini sam.
A 12th-Century Qurʾan Manuscript
The Ghurid Qurʾan is interesting for a number of reasons, one of which is the interlinear Persian translation.
A 12th-Century Minaret
The minaret of Jam in modern Afghanistan has inscriptions of the entire Qurʾanic chapter about the Virgin Mary. Its date is contested, which changes its interpretation. Scholars used to argue it was erected to celebrate a victorious campaign against India. Newer interpretations suggest that it was an attempt to proclaim Islamic orthodoxy in light of accusations of anthropomorphism.