Although the mosque was founded in the emirate period, it was built successively over many years. These images show some artwork from the later Umayyad Caliphate, while other pictures show the fate of the building after the fall of the Umayyads.

A 10th-century Description

This passage describes the foundation of the mosque from the perspective of al-Razi, who wrote in Arabic in the 10th century.

Source, pp. 41-2.

A 14th-century Description

This passage is from Ibn Idhari, a historian from Morocco who wrote an Arabic history of the Islamic West in the early 14th century.

Source, p. 98


Columns & Arches



A 16th-century Cathedral in the Middle