A 9th-century Description

This snippet is from Yaʿqūbī, who wrote a history and geography in Arabic in the 9th century.

When those “untutored” Turks (al-Atrāk al-ʿajam) rode their horses, (they did so) at full gallop, knocking people down right and left. The masses (ghawghāʾ) assaulted them (because of this), killing some, beating others; their blood was shed with impunity, while they did nothing to retaliate against those committing these deeds.

Source, p. 21.

A 10th-century Description

The reason why al-Muʿtaṣim left [Baghdad] is that his Turkish slave troops were continually finding their fellow soldiers, one after another, slain within (the streets of) their quarter. This was because, rough-mannered barbarians that they were, they rode their horses at full gallop through the avenues and streets of Baghdad, knocking men and women aside, and trampling down young children. The Abnāʾ would seize hold of them, pulling them off their horses, and wounding a number of them. Some died of their injuries (as a result).

Source, p. 20.

Two 9th-century Poems

This poem is by Buhturi, one of the most famous Arab poets of the 9th century, about the foundation of one of the palaces of Samarra’.

This poem is by ‘Ali b. Jahm to celebrate the renovation of a palace in Samarra’ under Mutawakkil.