Umayyads in Spain

In 929, the Umayyad emir of Andalus, ‘Abd al-Rahman III, declared himself caliph. He subsequently built a new capital for himself, drawing on classical themes and Andalusi architectural styles. The Umayyad caliphs engaged in extensive relationships with other empires and peoples in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East, building on ties that had already existed during the emirate. Some of the same conversations also continue, such as the anxieties about communal boundaries between Muslims, Jews, and Christians. These conversations are complicated by the popularity of the Arabic language across communities, as well as ongoing interest in understanding the relationship between Arabs and non-Arabs.

Umayyad Caliphate 2.0


Identities & Contestation