Dhimmi Status

A 9th-century Description

This passage outlines the proposed agreements between Muslims and non-Muslims, as found in the lawbook by the 9th-century jurist Shafi’i.

Source, pp. 173-6.

An 11-12th-century Description

This passage includes the so-called “ordinances of ‘Umar,” recorded in the 11-12th century but citing an authority from the 7th century. This version is from Turtushi.

Source, pp. 171-2.