A 13th-Century Coin
Left (in Uyghur): “this coin was struck by Abaqa, the vice-regal governor of the Great Khan”
Right (in Arabic): “in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, One God”; notice the cross at the bottom.
A 13th-Century Monastery
Martyrion of Mār Behnam, c. 13th century. The Martyrion of Mār Behnam contains a trilingual inscription: Syriac, Arabic, and Uyghur (Old Turkic). Uyghur was used by the Mongols. This is the only known example of a Uyghur inscription in Iraq. It relates to a donation given to Mār Behnam by a Mongol Khan c. 1300 A.D. The monastery had been earlier ransacked by the Mongols; the donation was restitution.