A 10th-century Description
This passage is from an Arabic history written by Tabari, a famous Muslim living in 10th-century Iran. He compiled one of the most influential histories of the early Islamic period. This part records ‘Ali’s statement to some Syrians at Siffin.
A 13th-century Depiction
This image is from a manuscript of Bal’ami’s 10th-century Persian History, dated to c. 1300. It shows the battle of Siffin.