Some 11th-12th-century Coins
Actual Almoravid Coin:
Left: Centery: no god but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God, the Amir Yusuf ibn Tashufin; Margin: and whosoever desires other than Islam as a faith, then it will not be accepted from him [Q. 3:85].
Right: Center: the Prince, Servant of God, Commander of the Faithful; Margin: in the name of God this dinar was struck in Aghmat the year three and ninety and four hundred.
An Imitation Almoravid Coin:
Both images: largely illegible imitation in both field and margin of a standard Almoravid (Murabitid) dinar.
Arabic Coins of Castile
Left: Center: the spiritual leader of the Christians, the Pope/Alf(onso); Margin: in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, one God, who so believeth in Him and is baptized will be saved.
Right: Center: Prince of the Catholics, Alfonso son of Sancho, May God protect and assist him!; Margin: this dinar was struck in the City of Toledo the year three and twenty and two hundred and one thousand safar (era) .
Dated to Safar 1302 in Seville, cites the ruler as “Alfonso, son of Ferrando,” adding a small o after ALF on the reverse. Minted “in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, one God, who so believeth in Him and is baptized will be saved.”
Frederick III, r. 1217-1252
Here is the tomb of the great king Don Ferdinand, lord of Castile, Toledo, León, Galicia, Seville, Cordoba, Murcia, and Jaén, may God be pleased with him, who ruled all of Spain (Andalus), [who is] the most faithful, the most veracious, the most enduring, the most just, the most valiant, the most propitious, the most noble, the most forbearing, he most visionary, the greatest in modesty, most suitable to God and His greatest servant. He died (God had mercy on him) on the Friday night and God raised him. He honored and ennobled his friends and took possession of the city of Seville, which is the capital of all of Spain, and in which he who broke and destroyed all of his enemies died on the twentieth of the month of First Rabia of the year 550 of the Hijra.
In this place is the tomb of the great king Don Ferdinand, lord of Castile, Toledo, León, Galicia, Seville, Cordoba, Murcie, and Jaén—may his soul be in paradise—who seized all of Spain (Sefarad), the upright, the righteous, the enduring, the mighty, the pious, the forbearing, the one who feared God and served Him all of his days, shattered and destroyed his enemies, praised and honored all of his friends, and took the city of Seville which is the capital of all of Spain, in which he died on the night of Friday, the twenty-second of the month of Sivan, of the year 5012 since the creation of the world.
Here lies the most honored king Don Ferdinand, lord of Castile and Toledo, of León, of Galicia, of Seville, of Cordoba, of Murcia, and of Jaén, he who conquered all of Spain (toda España), the most loyal and most truthful and the most forthright, the strongest and most decorated, the most illustrious and the most forbearing and the most humble and thos one who is most fearful of God, and the one who did the most service to Him; who broke and destroyed all of his enemies, who praised and honored all of his friends, and conquered the city of Seville which is the capital of all of Spain and died in it on the last day of May in our era, the year of 1290.
Here lies the most illustrious king Ferdinand of Castile, Toledo, León, Galicia, Seville, Cordoba, Murcia, and Jaén, who conquered all of Spain (Hispania), the most loyal, the most veracious, the most constant, the most just, the most energetic, the most tenacious, the most liberal, the most patience, the most humble and the most effective in fear and in the service of God. He conquered and all but exterminated the arrogance of his enemies, protected, raised up, and exalted the men who were his friends; he captured the city of Seville, the capital of all of Spain, from the hands of the pagans and restored it to the Christians, and that is he city where he paid his debt to nature and passed to the Lord on the last day of May in the year of the Incarnation, 1252.
The Door of the Mosque-turned-Cathedral in Seville
Remnants of the Mosque:
Additions to the Cathedral:
A Poem for Seville