Late Umayyads

Despite the fact that many people really hated the Umayyads, their rule is incredibly important for understanding the Caliphate and nascent Islam. After the second fitna, the Umayyads embark on a major campaign to conquer territory in Spain, Sind (Pakistan), Central Asia, and the Caucasus. They even mount a campaign against Constantinople. The Umayyads also start a series of reforms called the “Marwanid Reforms,” which introduced new coinage across Umayyad territory. At the same time, they built some of the most famous buildings of the early Islamic period, as well as palaces and bathhouses that offer us insight into the late seventh and early eighth centuries.

4a. Arabization

4b. Coin Reforms

4c. Building Programs

4d. Dhimmis