We are out of the ‘Abbasid orbit! If Ifriqiyya was hard for the Umayyads and ‘Abbasids to keep control, Morocco and Spain were simply too far removed. A Shi’i rebel set up shop in Morocco, blending claims to legitimacy from the Prophet Muhammad with Berber power. In Spain, the descendants of the Umayyads will find refuge. Neither Morocco nor Spain will acknowledge the ‘Abbasids. Both provinces instead show an innovative recasting of Roman legacies, as well as connections to the eastern Mediterranean.